Cancer immunotherapy is a fast-moving field that blends cutting-edge technologies to overcome past obstacles in the clinic. A key challenge has been refractory cancers which are advanced in progression or have not responded to prior therapies. Clinicians have intervened with adoptive T cell therapy, engineering the patient’s own T cells to enhance the body’s natural anti-tumor immune response to combat malignancies.
Unfortunately, even sophisticated treatment modalities are vulnerable to familiar complications such as T cell exhaustion and autoimmunity, or, as seen with early chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) studies, an increased risk of Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). To improve the safety and efficacy of adoptive T cell therapies, methods have been introduced to use T Cell receptors (TCRs) instead of CAR T to mitigate the risk of CRS.